Monday, September 18, 2017

Vocab Party

Note: at my school, Sheltered Algebra is a class for English Language Learners--students that are newcomers to the US that speak little to no English.

Update: Link to a Google Drive folder with Word and PDF versions of Vocab Party Cards for: bivariate stats; key features of quadratics; term, coefficient, exponent; math operation words; and polynomial vocabulary. 

I just finished my 5th year teaching Sheltered Algebra. Without doubt, this has become my favorite class to teach. But that wasn't always the case. The first three years of teaching Sheltered Algebra were challenging and I struggled--mostly because I felt like students weren't learning mathematics.

I felt like students weren't learning mathematics because my lessons inspired EL students to get up 20 times to sharpen their pencil. Or they would constantly get up to pretend blow their nose. There were behavior problems. I would try group work only to have the 'top' students in each group do all the work independently and then turn in the product as group work. I wasn't teaching mathematics for understanding. I could go on...

The last two years, however, have been a complete turnaround. My EL students do meaningful group work; my lessons are engaging, students are active; and students only get up to blow their nose for real! Upon reflection, I realized the primary factor in this classroom culture turnaround was an activity I created called Vocabulary Party.  Vocabulary Party allowed students to experience success in my class and gave them the skills needed to access my lesson, and once the students had access, they were willing to give their full effort and participation.

What is Vocab Party?

Vocabulary Party is a quick warm up activity I do most days in my Sheltered class. First, I project a card and we do an example together. 

This slide is an animation. The "answers" fly in as we go over the sentence frames together.

After we do an example together, I give each student a unique card that has the same sentence frames as example I projected, but the polynomial expression is different. (confession: it takes a long time to make a class set of cards, but once it is done, you can use it over and over). I give students about a minute to talk to their partner.  Students DO NOT write on the cards. That way I can reuse them. 


What Does Vocab Party Look Like in my Class?

The first few times we do the activity I will do a roleplay so students are very clear on my expectations for this activity. I'll have a student volunteer come up, we introduce ourselves to each other (bonus conversational English practice) and each read our card to the other person. It is also important that the partner can SEE what's on my card as well as HEAR me say the frames so I make sure to model that. 

Then, I give each student a unique card, and I have the students stand up and mingle (like at a party). They read their cards to each other and then find a new partner. I circulate, mostly to check in on specific students; this is also serves as a useful formative assessment--especially as I get new EL students throughout the year. 

Finally, I collect all the cards and do a check for understanding. I pull a card, put it under the doc cam, give students 30 seconds to talk to a partner, and then I cold call a student to read the card. My favorite part of this activity is giving newcomers, who are often low status, a feeling of success as they read the card (in English!) to the class. The best part--the round of applause that follows when a newcomer student reads the card to the class. This activity imbues a feeling of success for the students. And that feeling of success pays dividends in terms of engagement and effort.

Where do I get the cards for Vocab Party? I make them! Yes, initially it is time consuming. Especially since each student gets a unique card. Most of my classes have 25 students, but one class can get as big as 35 students. However, after I create the Vocab Party cards, I copy them onto card stock, and I can reuse them over and over (some teachers laminate them and use them for multiple years). To be honest, the return on the initial invest of my time is definitely worth it.

Here is a link to a Google Drive folder with lots of examples of Vocab Party in word documents and PDFs that you can print and use!
Examples of Key Features of Quadratics Vocab Party cards

How I Decide on the Content of a Vocab Party Card

When I plan a unit, I think about the language students need to be successful. I ask myself: in this unit, what do I want to hear students say or see students write that would tell me they understand the content? Once I answer that question, I create a Vocab Party to build the language students will need.

For example, the first unit I teach in sheltered algebra is called Foundations. One of the skills students need to master to be successful in this unit is combining like terms. To demonstrate understanding, I would expect students to talk about exponents, coefficients, and variables. Something like, "I cannot combine x and y because the variables are different" or "I cannot combine x and x2 because the exponents are different even though the variables are the same." Thus, I created a Vocab Party to explicitly teach the language students would need to demonstrate mastery. 

Academic Language Production

The experienced success and instant feedback of Vocab Party helps build the skills students needs to access the content.

For example, in those first three years when the class wasn't going well, I didn't explicitly teach the word "term" during the quadratics unit. Then, when I taught multiplying polynomials, it was very difficult for the students to understand or describe what they were doing without the word 'term'.  The students didn't have the vocabulary necessary to access the content. So I created a Vocab Party that specifically taught the word term--this makes teaching multiplying polynomials (and quadratics content in general) much easier.

For an expression like 4 – x, students often forget that the coefficient of x is –1. Vocab Party helps address that. Students sometimes think the exponent for a variable like x is zero (or that there isn't an exponent). Vocab Party helps address that. Vocab Party is an activity I use to explicitly teach the academic language that students need to learn a skill. That creates access. 

Moreover, since Vocab Party is easily differentiated, the activity allows ALL students to experience success. In a set of Vocab Party cards, I can have 'challenge' cards and I can have cards for students that needs to build basic vocabulary. 

Stats Unit Vocab Party card
Functions Unit Vocab Party card

Access Granted

It took me three years to figure out that in order to motivate students, in order to build engagement, I needed to create opportunities for ALL students to access the content. And, especially for EL students, but arguably for all students, explicit instruction of academic language (writing, speaking, listening or reading) is one way to create opportunities for students to access the content.

When I did not explicitly teach the language needed for the lesson, I was denying students the opportunity to learn because I was denying them access to the lesson. This wasn't an intentional move on my part. As a new teacher, I didn't understand the power of language in terms of creating access. Vocab Party is an opportunity to explicitly teach the language students need to be successful and this addresses the problem of access. Once students can access the lesson, they are engaged and willing to learn.

Many teachers in my department, including myself, now use Vocab Party for our mainstream, non EL classes. This activity is very easy to modify and different teachers have created different participation structures for the activity. I love hearing the different ways teachers in my department have structured this activity. If you try Vocab Party, let me know how it goes! 

Sunday, September 10, 2017

Solving Around the World

I've done this activity two years now. Both with my mainstream algebra class and my sheltered algebra class. Other algebra teachers at my school have also tried it. I've had administrators drop in to observe the activity. And the same couple observations always come up:

  • Student LOVE this activity. There is a real feeling of engagement in the room when students are doing this activity.
  • It feels like controlled chaos (not a bad thing). 
UPDATE: Here are links to templates of the activity. The only need to create your own links to the good forms! Solving Around the World WORD FILE .  Solving Around the World PDF FILE

My Inspriation

Last year the algebra team wanted to make a review activity for our solving unit. The solving unit mostly covers equations with variables on one side and equations with variables on both sides.

I told the team I would create something...and then I got stuck. My mind was stuck on a few things:
  • I didn't want to make a worksheet. I wanted something engaging and interesting. 
  • Solving isn't good for group work. Skills levels are too varied and it is too easy for a student with strong procedural fluency to "show" the group how to do it--that's not a review.
  • I wanted an activity that had feedback, but it is exhausting for a teacher to check in or verify or confirm every kid for every problem. Even if students check their solution, I still wanted to have a teacher/student check in component, but it needed to be reasonable.
I remember seeing an activity (I think for chemistry) on Twitter that used Google Forms to verify the student's solution. That seemed intriguing to me. What if I made a solving activity where students entered their response on a Google Form? 

My big ah-ha came as I was thinking about my sheltered algebra class. I have students from all over the world. What if each equation was a country that represented a country one of my students was from and students had to travel "around the world" to solve? After they entered the solution in the Google Form and it was verified, they could come to me and I could stamp their passport!! 

The Activity

I decided to do this as a partner task. I assign the partners. I created a page for each country. I printed the countries out and I hang them up around the classroom and outside the classroom as well (I teach in California so weather is almost never an issue). There are 16 countries (yes, I know...a student already pointed out that Antarctica is not a country...I was tired and Antarctica sounded cool!). Countries with asterisks have variables on both sides. 

I tell students to choose the country they want to work on, take a picture of the country, then go back and work on it with their partner--and I need to see work from both students. Once they finish solving it, they go to the link on the page and enter their solution. 

The Google Form the student sees looks like this.

If the solution they enter is incorrect, they get this message. 

If the solution they enter is correct, they can click next and get this page. 

Why I Think This Works

I wanted something engaging and this activity feels engaging. I think that is true for a few reasons:
  • Students have choice: they can choose which country to go to. And they can choose where in the room they want to sit--seems small, but it is a break from the norm.
  • Students can use their cell phones. I occasionally let them use cellphones in class for a task. When done right, cellphones are a good "hook" for engagement. I think that's the case here.
  • They get instant feedback. Students know right away if their solution is correct or not. They don't have to wait for me. 
  • I thought the "international" component would only pique the interest of my sheltered algebra students, but even my mainstream students say things like "let's go to Mexico!" They really do like the "around the world" component! :)
The instant feedback also reinforces a growth mindset message. Getting the wrong solution isn't punitive, it is just part of the process. They don't lose points, and I don't even know they got it wrong. They are only told to "Try Again". 

I'm sure there are a lot of ways to improve this activity. One problem I have is that the validation is really, really sensitive. So X=4 is wrong. So is x = 4. and 4=x. The form will only take x=4. But once students get the hang of that it isn't a huge problem.

It also took a long time to put the activity together. However, once it is made, you can use it indefinitely and share with others in your department. 

If you try, let me know how it goes! And if you improve it, please let me know so I can steal your good ideas! 

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